Emission from diesel Engines
Diesel engines produce emissions that can be harmful to the environment. This blog post aims to answer some of the questions people have about Emissions from diesel Engines. Diesel Engines produce emissions that can cause several environmental problems and negatively affect our environment. To reduce emissions from a diesel engine, you must understand the factors that contribute to emissions. We will also cover the different types of diesel engines and give tips on how to reduce the emissions from engine.
In this blog post, we will cover the various types of diesel engines emissions and help the readers understand them.
In this post on Emission from diesel Engines, we will discuss about the following.
1. Diesel Exhaust Emissions,
2. Emission reduction technology,
3. Emission control from Diesel Engines
What are the emission from diesel Engines ?
Emission from exhaust gas of a Diesel consists of the following.
- Oxides of nitrogen(NOX)
- Oxides of Sulphur (SOX)
- Particulate Matter (PM)
- Oxides of Carbon as Carbon dioxide (CO2)
- CO (Oxides of Carbon as Carbon Monoxide)
- Volatile Hydrocarbons from Lube oil and unburnt fuel (HC)
Oxides of nitrogen
Despite the fact, NOx consists of following
1. Nitric oxide (NO),
2. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2),
3. Nitrous oxide (N2O),
4. Dinitrogen pent oxide (N2O5).
NOx’s primary reference is to NO and NO2.
In the combustion processes NOx formation is inevitable. because the oxidation of N2 forms thermal NOx by O2 in the air.
NOx is an air pollutant and dangerous bio product of Combustion. Nox induces secondary pollutants such as photochemal smog.
Photo chemical smog is blend of gaseous photochemical oxidants, solid nitrate and sulphate.
Acid rain and photochemical oxidants are the cause of NOx.
Oxides of Sulfur (SOX)
SOx consists of sulfur monoxide (SO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfur trioxide (SO3). Because SO oxidizes into SO2. SO is not decomposable at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. Thus, it refers to SO2 and SO3.
Despite the fact observation of SO2 is as gas or molecules and SO3 is as PM. In combustion processes, sulfur in fuel leads to the formation of SOx.
In cases associating fossil fuels like petroleum and coal, observe SOX formation. SOx is bio-product and causes air Pollution along with NOx. SOx is the leding cause of fog.
Particulate Matter (PM)
PM is either a solid particle in liquid droplets. Aerosol in Atmosphere is also Particulates. Hanging particulate element confirms to a particle with 10 mm or less in size.
Origination of PM is due to the emission of soot, smog, and ash in carbon.
Particulates hanging in the Atmosphere in heavy concentrations are air pollution.
Inhaling PM will affect human and other living being’s health. Because PM deposits in the lungs and respiratory tract.
PM Emissions from the diesel engine are a severe problem.
The fuel of Diesel engines contains a heavy amount of sulfur.
During the combustion process in diesel engines, sulfur produces SOx, i.e., SO2 and sulfate, a PM type.
Oxides of Carbon as Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide emissions from the Diesel engine exhaust is approximately 6 %. CO2 is non-toxic. but has a significant share in Global Warming.
This gas causes the Earth’s Atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the unavoidable output of the combustion of fossil fuels.
Emissions from Diesel engines are lower than any other heat engines. Due higher efficiency.
Efficient fuel combustion will produce less carbon dioxide.
The amount of carbon dioxide production is proportional to the volume of fuel-burning.
Change over the fuel from Heavy fuel oil to Natural gas, Hydrogen, or Biofuel to decrease the CO2 emission.
Emission Reduction Technology
The diesel engine has the advantage of lower carbon dioxide. The diesel engine has more efficiency and compact size. It will be mandatory to control the emissions with the latest technology because of. Harmful particulates and NOx in the Diesel Engine emission.
Marine diesel exhaust emission has a high NOx concentration to the of 500e1000ppm.
Furthermore, diesel emissions contain sulfur oxides (SOx) and PM. It is easy to control the emission in Diesel Engine because of the low RPM.From the environmental safety aspects.
For the improvement of efficiency and reduction of emissions in Diesel Engine, the fuel injection system is the leading technology. Since this technology enhances combustion.
The impulsive Valve timing system is the automated regulation mechanism. Closing the intake valve before the BDC will lower the combustion temperature. And closing the valve before BDC will cut the effective compression ratio. This operation of the valve timing will reduce the emission.
Fuel Injection with a fine spray and correct pressure will improve vaporization.This process results in perfect and cleaner combustion with reduced NOx and PM. A small amount of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber creates ignition delay.
Prevention of rapid ignition by the method of ignition delay minimizes the NOx. In the following list, we are describing in brief the
Emission reduction techniques for diesel engines
Common Rail Injection System
The common rail fuel injection system is the solid injection system. A constant pressure of 300 bars to 500 bars is maintained by a bypass valve on the main fuel header. Excess fuel is returned to the main fuel supply tank.
High pressure is supplied to a fuel header by a pimp. From the header, high-pressure fuel is forced to each injector fitted in cylinder heads. Fuel enters the cylinders at an appropriate time controlled by a mechanically operated mechanism.
The design of the header pressure must meet the requirement of the engine designed for the injector. The designed pressure must be able to penetrate droplets deep into the combustion chamber against the compression pressure. The amount of fuel entering the cylinder is regulated by the Solenoid valve operated by ECU. ECU transmits a signal to the injector to start injecting the fuel after receiving the signal from the crank angle sensor, scavenge air temperature, engine speed, Jacket water temperature, and the load. Standard rail system helps in reducing emission, lower fuel consumption, and lower running speed. It helps in increasing combustion efficiency.
This type of treament reduces the causes that lead to the emergence of pollutants in fuel. Fuel pre-treatment is helpful since it is practical and. It doenst need the extra device with engine. Other advantage of the fuel treatment is that it limits the pollutants.
The technology of combustion enhancement doesn’t need any device outside the engine. Optimization and significant reduction is the chaalnge to this technology. It is challenging to achieve improvement in thermal efficiency. Improvement in thermal efficiency reduces the fuel consumption. Waste heat recovery can reduce the fuel consumption.
Post treatment of exhaust gas will reduce the pollutants in exhaust gas. The process of exhaust gas post treatment can reduce many pollutants. The disadvantage of the exhaust gas post treatment is that extra an extra device is must.
Bio fuels, which usually are liquid or gas, are from plants instead of fossil fuels. Diesel Engines use the specified biodiesel fuel. In this process of producing BDF, vegetable oil and animal fats have glycerol.
- The engines use The Natural evaporated gas known as boil-off gas of LNG as fuel for the engines. The main benefit of LNG usage is that it reduces SOx, NOx, and CO2 emissions. SOx emission is almost zero, while NOx and CO2 will cut by 80% and 25%.
- Nonetheless, a demerit. This system will need a sizeable special tank to store LNG. Which causes problems expenditure and stock capacity in a ship.
- Fuel Engines will meet the need of present and future stringent regulations. Dual fuel engines are very clean engines since these engines use gas as fuel. These engines emit low NOx, particulate matter (PM), CO2, and zero SOx.
- Gas engines reduce 43% of NOx, 25% of CO2, and 100% of SOx compared to oil. So, dual-fuel engines have many advantages.
Gas-fuel engines will reduce SOx, PM, and CO2 besides NOx.Like the ignition of diesel fuel in diesel engines. an ignition source is necessary for combustion in gas engines.
Methods of ignition in Gas Engines ( Emission from diesel Engines )
1. Spark Plug
2. Self Ignition – In this method, a mixture of natural gas and air ignite by the self-ignition of the diesel oil spray.
3. Pre- combustion chamber ignition method by the spark plug.
4. Self Ignition with the spray of diesel oil in the pre-combustion chamber.
Natural gas engines have the disadvantage of Knocking. Knocking causes sharp sound with vibrations. Knocking shockwaves cause damages to the engine material.
Responsive restriction of the air-to-fuel ratio prevents the Knocking-in Dual fuel engines.
In actual operation, output control of power overcomes the Knocking.
It is possible in the dual-fuel engine to change over the process from diesel and gas mode .
Besides, a few problems and difficulties persist during a change in a property of gas.
Due to the presence of low methane number in gas causing knocking.
Options of oil are also tricky due to the difference in properties of Diesel oil and gas. Generally, Marine fuel oil with a sulfur content of 3.5% uses. a lubricating oil with a high total base number (TBN) of 30e40 mg(KOH)/g.
Development of proper lubrication will improve the performance of both gas and diesel engines. A natural gas fuel with a sulphur content is 0% uses lubricating oil with a low TBN of w5 mg(KOH)/g.
Indian Emission Standards
Best Book on Emission reduction technology
Emission reduction technology
The emission reduction techniques include running the engine by mixing of FeCl3 as metal based catalyst with diesel, steam injection technique and diethyl ether in the fuel mix, with the engine running in the single as well as combined mode. The different combinations such as diesel with FeCl3 as catalyst, diesel with steam injection, diesel with FeCl3 and steam injection combinations, diesel with diethyl ether and finally diesel with diethyl ether with steam injection mode are tested and reported.
The following overall conclusions are drawn from the experimental observations: Diesel+FeCl3 combinations as a fuel mixture in the CI engine resulted in an improvement of the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine by 4% with a reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) up to 6% compared to the case when the engine is fuelled by diesel. Additions of FeCl3 to diesel result in a high cylinder gas peak pressure and temperature.
Diesel Engine: Combustion, Emissions and Condition Monitoring
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
Their combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics are described in this book. Reliable early detection of malfunction and failure of any parts in diesel engines can save the engine from failing completely and save high repair cost. Tools are discussed in this book to detect common failure modes of diesel engine that can detect early signs of failure.
Best Book On Diesel Engines
Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines
Based on the 2014 National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) Medium/Heavy Truck Tasks Lists and ASE Certification Test Series for truck and bus specialists, Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines is designed to address these and other international training standards. The text offers comprehensive coverage of every NATEF task with clarity and precision in a concise format that ensures student comprehension and encourages critical thinking. Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines describes safe and effective diagnostic, repair, and maintenance procedures for today’s medium and heavy vehicle diesel engines, including the most current, relevant, and practical coverage of: • HD-OBD emission diagnostics • Common rail injection systems
Pounder’s Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines
Pounder’s Marine Diesel Engines has served seagoing engineers, students of the Certificates of Competency examinations and the marine engineering industry throughout the world.
Now in its ninth edition, Pounder’s retains the directness of approach and attention to essential detail that characterized its predecessors. There are new chapters on monitoring control and HiMSEN engines as well as information on developments in electronic-controlled fuel injection. It is fully updated to cover new legislation including that on emissions and provides details on enhancing overall efficiency and cutting CO2 emissions.
After experience as a seagoing engineer with the British India Steam Navigation Company, Doug Woodyard held editorial positions with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institute of Marine Engineer
* Helps engineers to understand the latest changes to marine diesel engineers
* Careful organisation of the new edition enables readers to access the information they require
* Brand new chapters focus on monitoring control systems and HiMSEN engines.
* Over 270 high quality, clearly labelled illustrations and figures to aid understanding and help engineers quickly identify what they need to know.
Handbook of Diesel Engines
This machine is destined to completely revolutionize cylinder diesel engine up through large low speed t- engine engineering and replace everything that exists. stroke diesel engines. An appendix lists the most (From Rudolf Diesel’s letter of October 2, 1892 to the important standards and regulations for diesel engines. publisher Julius Springer. ) Further development of diesel engines as economiz- Although Diesel’s stated goal has never been fully ing, clean, powerful and convenient drives for road and achievable of course, the diesel engine indeed revolu- nonroad use has proceeded quite dynamically in the tionized drive systems.
This handbook documents the last twenty years in particular. In light of limited oil current state of diesel engine engineering and technol- reserves and the discussion of predicted climate ogy. The impetus to publish a Handbook of Diesel change, development work continues to concentrate Engines grew out of ruminations on Rudolf Diesel’s on reducing fuel consumption and utilizing alternative transformation of his idea for a rational heat engine fuels while keeping exhaust as clean as possible as well into reality more than 100 years ago. Once the patent as further increasing diesel engine power density and was filed in 1892 and work on his engine commenced enhancing operating performance.
Diesel Generator Handbook
Diesel Generator Handbook meets the need for an authoritative reference work covering the range of mechanical and electrical topics embodied in the practical design and application of diesel generating plant. It will be particularly welcomed in many parts of the developing world where the diesel generator is basic to the electricity supply system.
The discussion covers, in fifteen chapters, the prime mover, power ratings, synchronous generators, load assessment, control principles and systems, switchgear and controlgear, standby power, fuels and lubricating oilss, installation and commissioning, noise reduction, and plant operation and maintenance.
The book thus caters for all who are concerned with the selection, specification, testing, commissioning, operation and maintenance of diesel-based generator systems: not only the practising plant or services engineers, but also non-specialist engineers and users. The young technician or trainee engineer who is embarking on a career in the supply industry will find this handbook an invaluable investment.
L L J Mahon, FIEE, FBIM, after an engineering apprenticeship with BTH in Rugby, gained over 30 years’ experience in the design, development, manufacture, installation and commissioning of both stationary and highly specialised mobile diesel generator plant for a range of applications.
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